Monaco officially the Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco) , is a microstate located in South Western Europe on the northern central coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is surrounded on three sides by its neighbour, France, and its centre is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy. Its area is 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi) with an estimated population of almost 33,000.
Monaco is a constitutional monarchy and principality, with Prince Albert II as the head of state. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco since 1297, and the state’s sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monaco being independent, its national defence is the responsibility of France. SOURCE : WIKIPEDIA